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math.random

number math.random( number m = nil, number n = nil )

Description

When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range 0 to 1 which includes 0 but excludes 1.

When called with an integer number m, returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range 1 to m inclusive.

When called with two integer numbers m and n, returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range m to n inclusive.

See also math.Rand

Arguments

1 number m = nil
If m is the only parameter: upper limit.

If n is also provided: lower limit.

If provided, this must be an integer.

2 number n = nil
Upper limit.

If provided, this must be an integer.

Returns

1 number
Random value

Example

Generate a random number between 1 and 400 with both math.random and math.Rand.

print( math.random( 1, 400 ) ) print( math.Rand( 1, 400 ) )
Output:
317 1.0162317198768

Example

Select a random key from a table, where the keys have a different probability of being selected.

function GetWeightedRandomKey( tab ) local sum = 0 for _, chance in pairs( tab ) do sum = sum + chance end local select = math.random() * sum for key, chance in pairs( tab ) do select = select - chance if select < 0 then return key end end end -- Example usage: local fruit = { Grape = 4.5, Orange = 20, Banana = 3.14 } for i = 1, 5 do print( GetWeightedRandomKey( fruit ) ) end
Output:
Banana Grape Banana Orange Orange

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